These 10 kinds of psychology must learn to grasp
In life, we will do some natural things. Before we encounter special reminders, we will not think about whether it is right or not, or that we follow the feelings (this feeling is not necessarily our own).
In fact, this is very dangerous. If you do what you think is right, you never reverse it. As a result, your mind is not being kidnapped or gradually moving to a deeper abyss.
I think we have to learn a certain psychological analysis. When we find that we are doing something wrong (can be compared with a good person), we can analyze why this is.
Here are 10 kinds of psychology, and learn to better analyze people’s behavior.
The bird cage logic hangs a beautiful bird cage in the most conspicuous place in the room. After a few days, the owner will definitely make one of two choices: throw the bird cage away, or buy a bird and put it back in the bird cage.in.
This is the bird cage logic.
The process is very simple, predicting that you are the owner of this room, as long as someone walks into the room and sees the bird cage, you can’t help but ask you: “What about birds?
Is it dead?
“When you answer: “I have never raised a bird.
People will ask: “So, what do you want for a bird cage?”
“In the end, you have to choose between two choices, because this is easier to do than an endless explanation.
The reason for the bird cage logic is simple: most people take inertial thinking.
So it is obvious how important it is to cultivate logical thinking in life and work.
There is a phenomenon in the study of the window-breaking psychology called “broken window effect”, that is to say, if a window is broken and no one is going to repair it, other windows will be inexplicably broken soon; one wall,If some graffiti does not clean up, it will be filled with messy things that are unsightly.
A very clean place, people will be embarrassed to throw rubbish, but once there is rubbish on the ground, people will not hesitate to abandon, not at all shy.
This is a very strange phenomenon.
Psychologists are studying this “tipping point”. How dirty it is on the ground, people will feel that it is so dirty anyway, and it doesn’t matter if it is dirty. If the situation is bad, people will abandon it and let it rot.
Any bad thing, if it does not block the fall at the beginning, the formation of the atmosphere, the change can not be changed, just like the river embankment, a small gap is not repaired in time, can collapse, resulting in millions of losses.
Crime is actually the result of disorder. When New York City was in the 80s, it was really robbed everywhere, and there was no day to kill. It would be scary to walk on the road during the day.
Not to mention the subway, the carriages are messy, covered with cockroaches everywhere, sitting in the subway, everyone is at risk.
Although I have not been robbed, but a professor was beaten in a broad daylight, knocked a sap, blind eyes, and ended his research career, so that I have been talking about the discoloration of the tiger, not afraid to go to New York to meet.
Recently, the city appearance and reputation of New York have improved a lot. I am quite surprised. A city that has been sinking down can actually die and rise.
Therefore, when I went out to participate and met a criminologist, I immediately asked him about it. The original New York City used the theory of the broken window effect in the past books to improve the criminal environment and make people not easy to commit crimes.Slowly arrest the murderer and return to the ranks.
At that time, although this practice was slowed down, “the ship must sink and still wash the deck”, but the city of New York is still cleaning the subway car, and it becomes a person who does not buy a ticket and tries to put it in a row.Standing on the platform and publicly proclaiming the government’s determination to rectify the government, it turned out to be very effective.
The police found that people were less likely to sin in clean places, and found that the escape ticket was very rewarding, because one out of every seven people who fled the ticket was wanted, and one in 20 had weapons, so the police were willing很 认真地去抓逃票，这使得歹徒不敢逃票，出门不敢带武器，以免得不偿失，因小失大.
In this way, New York City started from the smallest and easiest place, breaking the chain of crimes, making this vicious circle impossible to continue.
Responsibility Dispersion At 3:20 pm on March 13, 1964, in front of an apartment on the outskirts of New York, a young woman named Junobi White was assassinated on the way home from the end of the bar.
When she desperately shouted: “Someone wants to kill!
“When I heard the shouts, the nearby residents lit up the lights and opened the window. The murderer scared away.”
When everything was calm, the murderer returned to commit the crime.
When she yelled again, the nearby residents turned on the lights again and the murderer fled again.
When she thought she had nothing to do and returned to her home, the murderer appeared again in front of her and killed her on the stairs.
In the process, although she shouted for help, at least 38 of her neighbors went to the window to watch, but no one came to save her, and no one even called the police.This incident caused a sensation in New York society and also attracted the attention and thinking of social psychologists.
The phenomenon of the death of many such bystanders is called the dispersion of responsibility.
For the reasons for the formation of the responsibility dispersion effect, psychologists conducted alternative experiments and investigations, and found that this phenomenon can not only be said to be the ruthlessness of the people, or the increasingly degraded performance of morality.
Because on different occasions, people’s assistance behavior is indeed different.
When a person encounters an emergency situation, if only one person can provide help, he will be aware of his responsibilities and help the victims.
If he sees death, he will feel guilty and guilty, which requires a high psychological cost.
And if there are a lot of people present, the responsibility of helping the help-seekers is shared by everyone, causing the responsibility to be dispersed, and the responsibility shared by each person is very small. The bystander may not even be aware of his own responsibility.A kind of mentality of “I don’t save, save by others” creates a situation of “collective indifference.”
How to break through this situation is an important topic that psychologists are studying.
Parkinson’s Law The famous British historian Northgood Parkinson wrote a book called Parkinson’s Law through a long-term investigation.
In his book, he budgeted the reasons and consequences of institutional expansion: an incompetent official may have three outlets. The first is to apply for resignation and give the seat to the competent person. The second is to let a competent person assist.Work on your own; the third is to hire two people who are more important than their own.
This first road is absolutely impossible, because it will lose many rights; the second road can not go, because the capable person will become his opponent; it seems that only the third road is the most suitable.
As a result, the two mediocre assistants shared his work, and he himself gave orders to them, and they would not pose a threat to their rights.
Since the two assistants are incompetent, they will go up and work, and find two more incompetent assistants for themselves.
And so on, it has formed a leadership system that is bloated, overstaffed, and ridiculous.
The halo effect of the famous Soviet writer Pushkin has suffered a lot from the effect of the halo effect.
He fell in love with Natalie, known as “the first beauty of Moscow,” and married her.
Na Thanli is amazing, but it is different from Pushkin.
When Pushkin read the written poems to her every time.
She always licked her ear and said, “Don’t listen!
On the contrary, she always wanted Pushkin to accompany her to play, to participate in some luxurious evenings, dances, Pushkin rankings to drop the creation, to make debts high, and finally to die for her duel, so that a literary superstar fell prematurely.
In Pushkin’s view, a beautiful woman must have extraordinary wisdom and noble character, but this is not the case. This phenomenon is called the halo effect.
The so-called halo effect is the characteristic of certain aspects of human beings in interpersonal communication, which masks other characteristics and causes obstacles in interpersonal cognition.
In daily life, the “halo effect” is often quietly affecting our perception and evaluation of others.
The old people of XX have different personalities for young people, or they are dressed and their habits are not pleasing to the eye. They think that they must have no interest; some young people will see him because they admire some lovely things of their friends.It’s so cute everywhere, it’s so called “a handsome hood”.
The halo effect is a subjective psychological speculation with partiality. The error lies in: First, it is easy to grasp the individual characteristics of the object, and the habit is to push the individual and the general, just like the blind person touches the image, to point to the face; secondIt links some personality or appearance features that are not intrinsically linked, and asserts that there must be another feature in this feature. Third, it is all affirmative when it says good, and it is all negative when it says bad. This is subjective.Prejudice dominates the absolute tendency.
In short, the halo effect is a cognitive barrier that has a great psychological impact on people in interpersonal communication. We try to avoid and overcome the substitution of halo effect in communication.
Hawthorne effect (Hawthorne effect) An experimental effect in psychology.
In the 1920s and 1930s, American researchers discovered the experimenter effect in the working conditions, social factors, and productivity experiments conducted at the Chicago Electric Power Company’s Hawthorne plant, called the Hawthorne effect.
The first phase of the experiment was to establish the experimental and control groups from the relationship between working conditions and production benefits starting in November 1924.
As a result, the yield of the experimental group increased regardless of the increase or control of the illumination, and the yield of the control group with the same illumination was also increased.
In addition, factors such as wages, breaks, daily working hours and working days per week were tested, and the direct impact of these working conditions on production efficiency was not seen.
The second phase of the experiment was led by Harvard University professor Mayo, focusing on the relationship between social factors and production efficiency. It was found that the improvement in production efficiency was mainly due to the tremendous changes in the spirit of the subjects.
The workers participating in the trial were appointed as specialized laboratories and led by researchers. Their social status changed and received attention from all sides, which formed the feeling of participating in the experiment and felt that they were an important part of the company, thus making workersInspired from a social perspective to promote production.
This effect tells us that when students or themselves meet the public’s attention or gaze, the efficiency of learning and communication will increase greatly.
Therefore, we must learn to be friendly with others in our daily life, and understand that certain behaviors are accepted and valued by classmates and teachers. We can only suffer more by constantly increasing our good behavior in life and study.People’s attention and appreciation can also make our learning progress and confidence!
Learned helpless experimentally learned helpless experiments were first discovered by Overmill and Sigman and later discussed extensively in animal and human studies.
To be simple, many experiments have shown that after training, the dog can cross the barrier or tighten other behaviors to escape the shock that the experimenter added to it.
However, if the dog has previously suffered an unpredictable (unknown when) and uncontrollable electric shock (such as the interruption of the electric shock does not depend on the dog’s behavior), when the dog later has a chance to escape the electric shock, they also become unable to escape.。Moreover, dogs also exhibit other deficiencies, such as feeling depressed and depressed, less active, and so on.
The reason why dogs show this situation is because they learned a sense of helplessness in the early stages of the experiment.
In other words, they realize that they can’t control the termination of an electric shock, no matter what they do.
In each experiment, the termination of the shock was under the control of the experimenter, and the dog realized that he had no ability to change this external control, thus learning a sense of helplessness.
If a person is learned and helpless, it becomes a deep despair and sorrow.
Therefore, we should open our eyes in learning and life, see the real determinants behind the incident, and do not surround us with despair.
The witness witness’s memory witness, in our knowledge, is usually the person who provides some objective evidence, that is, the person who sees it with his own eyes and tells the truth in person.
However, psychological studies have shown that many witnesses provide testimony that is not quite correct, or that is personally inclined, with personal opinions and consciousness.
Witnesses’ confidence in their testimony does not determine the accuracy of their testimony. The results of this study are shocking.
Psychologists Perfekt and Hollins decided to conduct a more in-depth study of this period.
In order to check whether the testimony of the witness has something special, they compare the memory of the witness with the memory of general knowledge.
They asked the subjects to see a short video about a girl being kidnapped.
The next day, the participants were asked to answer some questions about the contents of the video, and asked them to express their confidence in their answers, and then do a memory test.
Next, using the same method, the content is a general knowledge question selected from encyclopedias and popular papers.
As before, Perfekt and Rawlings also found that in the accuracy of witness recalls, those who are confident in their answers are actually no better than those who are not confident, but for general knowledge.In this case, this is not the case. People with high confidence recall that their performance is longer than those with insufficient confidence.
People have self-knowledge about their strengths and weaknesses in general knowledge.
Therefore, it is suspected to modify their test results for the confidence scale.
General knowledge is a database that is shared between individuals. It has a well-recognized correct answer, and participants can imagine it themselves.
For example, people will know if they are better off on the sports issue than others.
However, witnessed events are not affected by this self-awareness.
For example, in general, they are less likely to know that they are better than the color of the participants’ hair color in other memory events.
Rosenthal effect American psychologist Rosenthal and others made a famous experiment in 1968.
They went to a primary school and selected three classes of children in grades one through six to conduct a “test for predicting future development”, and then the experimenter would inform the teacher of the list of students with “probable development possibilities”.
In fact, this list is not determined based on the test results, but is randomly selected.
It hints at the teacher with “authoritative lies”, which mobilizes the teacher’s expectation of the students on the list.
Eight months later, the results of the smart test again found that the students on the list generally improved their grades, and the teachers gave them good character transformation.
This experiment has achieved miraculous effects. People have adopted this influence of teachers’ imperceptibility on students’ psychology, so that students can obtain the progress that teachers expect. This is called the Rosenthal effect.The Pygmalion effect (Pygmalion effect is the king of ancient Greek mythology, he has a love for a girl statue, his enthusiasm finally makes this depiction a real person, the two love each other).
Educational practice also shows that if teachers like certain students, they will have higher expectations for them. Through time, students will correct teachers’ care, love and encouragement; often treat teachers with positive attitude, treat and treat themselves.Students are more self-respecting, self-confident, self-love, self-improvement, and induce a positive passion. These students often get the progress that teachers expect.
On the contrary, those students who are neglected and discriminated by teachers will, for a long time, recognize the teacher’s “eccentricity” from the teacher’s words, manners and expressions, and treat the teacher with a negative attitude, treat their own learning, ignore or refuse to follow the teacher.The requirements; these students often become bad every day, and finally become a bad element of society.
Although there are some exceptions, the big trend is there, and it also sounds the alarm for the teacher.
False sympathy bias (false consensus bias) We usually believe that our hobbies are the same as most people.
If you like to play computer games, then it is possible to overestimate the number of people who like computer games.
You also often overestimate the number of people who vote for their favorite classmates, overestimating their prestige and leadership in the crowd.
The severity of your number of people who have the same characteristics as your behavior and attitude is called “false sympathy bias”.
Some factors can affect your virtual false sympathetic bias strength: (1) when external attribution is stronger than internal attribution; (2) when current behavior or event is important to someone; (3) when you are(4) When your whole body or normal life and learning are threatened; (5) When it comes to a positive quality or personality; (6) When you will be someone elseSeen as being similar to yourself.